Table of Contents

Frequently Used Terms

Morgan Wynnes Updated by Morgan Wynnes

Below are alphabetically sorted tables which list commonly used terms, along with the term's explanation, and any relevant link(s) to an article/video that provides further details on the subject and/or it's use in Sonar.

Use the Table of Contents (to the right) to quickly navigate to the section you are looking for.

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A

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

API

Application Programming Interface; allows interactions between software intermediaries and endpoints, such as a 3rd party software and a database.

Sonar's API Docs

ARIN

American Registry for Internet Numbers; the regional Internet registry for Canada, the United States, and many Caribbean and North Atlantic islands.

Avalara

Software for automated tax compliance; integrated with Sonar for automated tax calculation.

Sonar Cast

B

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

Baicells

LTE provider that we can provision for in Sonar.

Sonar Cast

C

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

CoA

Change of Authorization; a method by which authorization changes can be performed dynamically after the device or user is authenticated, without disconnecting the session. It is generated by a RADIUS server and sent to a NAS.

Ex: slowing down a user’s throughput

CPE

Customer-Premises Equipment; communications equipment that is located on the customer's premises (physical location) rather than on the provider's premises or in between.

D

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol; a protocol used to provide quick, automatic, and central management for the distribution of IP addresses within a network.

HelpDocs Link

Sonar Cast

DID

Direct Inward Dialing; used in VoIP communication to allow communication between traditional phone and VoIP phone numbers.

DKIM

Domain Keys Identified Mail. This is an email authentication method designed to detect forged sender addresses in emails (email spoofing), a technique often used in phishing and email spam. It achieves this by affixing a digital signature, linked to a domain name, to each outgoing email message.

HelpDocs Link

DNS

Domain Name System; naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.

DOCSIS

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification; an international telecommunications standard that allows for the addition of high-bandwidth data transfer to an existing coaxial cable TV system.

Sonar Cast

E

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

Ethernet

A way of connecting computers together in wired local area networks (LANs).

F

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

FCC

An independent agency of the United States government responsible for regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.

FCC Website

FCC Form 477

All facilities-based broadband providers are required to file data with the FCC twice a year (Form 477) on where they offer Internet access service at speeds exceeding 200 kbps in at least one direction.  

Form 477 Resources

Flapping

Used in monitoring; occurs when a device switches states in a quick sequence.

HelpDocs Link

Sonar Cast

G

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

GeoFence

A GeoFence defines a geographical area that you want to contain some technicians within, and is used when setting up availability for jobs and scheduling, to limit where the jobs can be done.

HelpDocs Link

GraphQL

GraphQL is an open-source data query and manipulation language for APIs, and is used within Sonar to manage and manipulate your data.

GraphiQL

A graphical interface available through [your instance].sonar.software/graphiql which allows manipulation of your data without the need for a 3rd-party program.

H

I

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol; an error-reporting protocol that network devices (like routers) use to generate error messages to the source IP address when network problems prevent delivery of IP packets.

HelpDocs Link

Sonar Cast

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity; a number that uniquely identifies every user of a cellular network.

Inline Device

A device that sits in the path of customer traffic and performs some kind of action on the traffic.

HelpDocs Link

Instance

The customer’s footprint at Sonar: web front-end, databases, etc. Typically named company.sonar.software where 'company' is the company's name (i.e. AwesomeISP.sonar.software)

IP

Internet Protocol; the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet.

IPAM

Internet Protocol Address Management; Used for planning and managing the assignment and use of IP addresses and closely related resources of a computer network.

HelpDocs Link

IPv4

Internet Protocol Version 4; a 32-bit numeric address whose decimal values are separated by a dot (.).

IPv6

Internet Protocol Version 6; a 128-bit alphanumeric address whose hexadecimal values are separated by a colon (:). 

ISP

Internet Service Provider; an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.

J

K

L

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

LTE

Long-Term Evolution; a networking standard developed to provide increased speed and efficiency for mobile broadband.

M

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

MAC Address

Media Access Control Address; a hardware identification number that uniquely identifies each device on a network.

MDU

Multi-Dwelling Unit; an "MDU property" is a real estate development or complex that includes multi-dwelling units, such as apartments or condominium units.

MIB

A Managed Information Base is a database used for managing entities in a communication network, used frequently with the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

Middleware

The software layer that lies between the operating system and the applications on each side of a distributed computer network, used to connect software components or enterprise applications.

For Sonar purposes, this is software that sends or receives Sonar data but does not reside as part of your instance.

MikroTik

A network equipment manufacturer that develops and sells wired and wireless network routers, network switches, access points, as well as operating systems and auxiliary software.

HelpDocs Link

Mimosa

A provider of wireless broadband, fiber-based internet, disaster recovery and security solutions for businesses.

Sonar Cast

N

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

NAS

Network Access Server; network device that handles access into a system; usually relies on RADIUS for admitting a user onto the network.

NAT

Network Address Translation; translates the IP addresses of computers in a local network to a single IP address. 

NIC

Network Interface Card (or Network Interface Controller); a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

O

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

OID

Object Identifiers; uniquely identify managed objects in a Management Information Base (MIB) hierarchy.

Option 82

Provides additional security when DHCP is used to allocate network addresses.

OUI

Organizational Unique Identifier; the part of the MAC address (the first 24 bits) that identifies the vendor of the network adapter.

P

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

Personal Access Token

An alternative to using a password for authentication purposes that grants an individual user access to a Sonar instance. Typically used by Sonar support members for monitoring and troubleshooting purposes, and also when creating an integration that will access Sonar through the API.

HelpDocs Link

Poller

A piece of software that sends a periodic request to an agent for management data.

HelpDocs Link

Sonar Cast

Pool (IP Pool)

A sequential range of IP addresses within the network.

PPPoE

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet; a specification for connecting multiple computer users on an Ethernet local area network to a remote site through common customer premises equipment (CPE).

Sonar Cast

Preseem

A Quality of Experience monitoring and optimization platform that can be integrated with Sonar and is used to help WISPs make their network more efficient, effective and profitable.

HelpDocs Link

Preseem Website

Procera

A networking equipment company that designs and sells Network Intelligence solutions based on deep packet inspection (DPI) technology.

Provisioning

Involves the process of preparing and equipping a network to allow it to provide services to its users.

Sonar Cast #1

Sonar Cast #2

Pulse

A powerful and intelligent Sonar module that automatically learns the topology and state of your network using the data in your Sonar instance and network polling.

Sonar Cast

Q

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

QoE

Quality of Experience; a measure of satisfaction of a customer's experiences with a service (i.e. web browsing, phone call, TV broadcast, etc).

QoS

Quality of Service; the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service (i.e. a telephony, computer network, or cloud computing service), particularly the performance seen by the users of the network, used to measure key network performance metrics.

R

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service; a networking protocol that provides centralized Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting management for users who connect and use a network service. 

HelpDocs Link

Sonar Cast

S

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

Saisei

A software company that develops network performance enforcement solutions for large enterprises and service providers worldwide.

Sandvine

A network intelligence company that uses automation to enable operators to deliver a high quality experience to their subscribers.

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol; an application-layer protocol used to manage and monitor network devices and their functions.

HelpDocs Link

Sonar Cast

Soft Assignment

Within Sonar, a soft assignment means that Sonar has learned an IP address from a DHCP or RADIUS server, rather than it being set by Sonar.

Subnet

A logical partition of an IP network into multiple, smaller network segments.

Supernet

The largest, contiguous subnet you have, either IPv4 or IPv6.

SPF

Sender Policy Framework. SPF is a type of Domain Name Service (DNS) TXT record that identifies which mail servers are permitted to send email on behalf of your domain. The purpose of an SPF record is to detect and prevent spammers from sending messages with forged From addresses on your domain.

Helpdocs Link

T

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

Telrad

A company that provides LTE solutions for wireless internet service providers.

Sonar Cast

Tokenization

Tokenization is the process of protecting sensitive data by replacing it with an algorithmically generated number called a token. Often times tokenization is used to prevent credit card fraud.

Square blog explaining tokenization

U

V

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol; this protocol enables use of the internet to make phone calls across the world.

W

Term

Explanation

Link(s), if available

WISP

Wireless Internet Service Provider; an Internet service provider that allows users to connect to a server through a wireless connection, such as Wi-Fi.

Webhooks

Webhooks allow events in Sonar to trigger programs and scripts that exist in other servers or devices.

X

Y

Z

How did we do?

How To Use GraphiQL to Understand the Sonar API

Mutations in the Sonar API

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